We present a review of recent developments in poweredankle-foot prostheses (PAFPs), with emphasis on actuation, high-and low-level control strategies, and pneumatic, hydraulic, and electromechanical actuators. A high-level control strategy based on finite-state machines, combined with low-level control that drives the ankle torque, is the most common control strategy. On the other hand, brushless direct-current motors along with an energy storage and release mechanism are commonly used to reduce the overall size of the actuators and increase PAFP autonomy. Most designs have been evaluated experimentally, showing acceptable results in walking velocity and gait symmetry. Future research must focus on reducing weight, increasing energy efficiency, improving gait phase classification and/or intent of motion-prediction algorithms, updating low-level control of torque and position, and developing the ability of the patient to walk on sloped surfaces and negotiate stairs.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering|
|State||Published - 2018|
- Powered ankle-foot prostheses