Several metabolic abnormalities are associated with relative excess or deficiency of adipose tissue. Identifying the regulators of adipogenic differentiation is critical for its successful manipulation. Ad36, a human adenovirus, is a novel factor that promotes adipogenesis. We exploited the adipogenic potential of Ad36 to reveal exogenous modifiers of adipogenesis in rodent preadipocyte cell line in the presence or absence of differentiation inducers methyl-isobutyl-xanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (M, D, and I; MDI). A nonadipogenic human adenovirus Ad2 was used as a negative control for viral infection. First, we confirmed that, Ad36, but not Ad2, increases lipid accumulation in the presence or absence of MDI. Time-course studies for expression of key genes of adipogenic cascade showed that it is Ad36, but not Ad2, which downregulated preadipocyte marker gene Wnt10b, and upregulated expression of early (C/EBPΔ and C/EBPΒ), intermediate (PPARγ2), and late genes (aP2 and G3PDH) of adipogenic cascade even in the absence of MDI. In the presence of MDI, onset of expression of adipogenic genes coincided for Ad36 and control groups, but the expressions were significantly greater for the Ad36 group. Next, we observed that attenuation of Ad36 mRNA expression by an antiadenoviral agent reduced 3T3-L1 differentiation, indicating that viral mRNA expression is required for the process. Furthermore, with or without MDI or its components, Ad36 significantly increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Cell confluency at the time of Ad36 infection positively influenced lipid accumulation. The results reveal that Ad36 is an MDI-independent exogenous regulator of the adipogenic process. Elucidating the molecular pathways involved may reveal novel regulatory controls of adipogenesis.