Adapting confocal Raman microscopy for in situ studies of redox transformations at electrode-electrolyte interfaces

Carol Korzeniewski, Eric M. Peterson, Jay P. Kitt, Shelley D. Minteer, Joel M. Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Confocal Raman microscopy was applied to quantify redox species present within the diffusion layer adjacent to an electrode surface under potentiostatic control. A glass microscope coverslip with a thin indium tin oxide (ITO) coating served as both the working electrode and optical window for a microscope-stage mountable spectroelectrochemical cell. A high numerical aperture objective mounted in an inverted microscope frame just below the stage brought excitation radiation through the coverslip window and to a tight focus a few micrometers above the ITO film surface. Species diffusing into the confocal probe volume defined by the excitation beam focus and the collected light region were detected, identified and quantified based on their Raman scattering frequencies and intensities. In measurements that interrogated the interconversion of ferrocyanide and ferricyanide ions as a function of applied voltage, least-squares regression analysis of spectral datasets predicted the formal potential and relative surface concentrations of the ions in good agreement with the expected Nernstian response. Preliminary studies of methyl viologen reduction at an ITO film/Nafion membrane interface were conducted and show the possibility for estimation of mass transport coefficients of redox species within ionic polymer materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115207
JournalJournal of Electroanalytical Chemistry
StatePublished - Sep 1 2021


  • Confocal Raman microscopy
  • Diffusion layer
  • Mass transport
  • Polymer modified electrode
  • Spectroelectrochemistry


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