Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. Toll-like receptors (TLR) and NOD-like receptors (NLR) are two families of pattern recognition receptors that play important roles in the immune response and inflammation in adipocytes. Activation of TLR4 has been shown to stimulate lipolysis from adipose tissue or adipocytes. However, effects of activation of nucleotide-oligomerization domain containing protein 1 (NOD1), one of the prominent members of NLRs, on adipocyte lipolysis have not been studied. Here we report that NOD1 activation by the synthetic ligands (Tri-DAP and C12-iEDAP) stimulated lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a time-and dose-dependent manner. C12-iEDAP-induced lipolysis was attenuated with NOD1 siRNA knockdown, demonstrating the specificity of the effects. Moreover, inhibition of the protein kinase A (PKA)/hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and NF-κB pathways by the pharmacological inhibitors attenuated the lipolytic effects of C12-iEDAP. Furthermore, we show NOD1 activation induced PKA activation independent of cAMP production and inhibition of NF-κB pathways attenuated phosphorylation of selected PKA lipolytic targets (phosphorylation of Perilipin Ser 517 and HSL Ser 563). Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role of NOD1 activation, via NF-κB/PKA lipolytic activation, in inducing lipolysis in adipocytes and suggest that NOD1 activation may contribute to dyslipidemia in obesity.
- pattern recognition receptor