Accurate detection of vehicle, pedestrian, cyclist and wheelchair from roadside light detection and ranging sensors

Junxuan Zhao, Hao Xu, Zhihui Chen, Hongchao Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Accurate detection plays a critical role in improving the safety situation of vulnerable road users. This study extends infrastructure-based LiDAR application to all three major vulnerable road user groups including pedestrians, cyclists, and wheelchair users. Two critical problems for accurate detection of small-sized road users are scanning angle variability and feature fluctuation. To address these issues, a feature-based classification method combined with prior LiDAR trajectory information is developed. Effective dimension-related features are proposed and five classifiers including artificial neural network (ANN), random forest (RF), adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), random under-sampling boosting (RUSBoost), and long short-term memory (LSTM) are tested with a novel feature engineering process. A total of seven features are selected from the point cloud of clusters for vehicle/pedestrian/cyclist/wheelchair classification. By updating these significant features based on prior information of the entire trajectory, the performance of road user classification (imbalanced datasets) has been significantly improved. Experimental study is conducted to examine the recall rate, F1-score, and AUC of vehicles, pedestrians, cyclists, and wheelchairs before and after integration with prior trajectory information. The result shows the trained AdaBoost, RUSBoost, and LSTM classifiers with prior trajectory information can achieve recall/F1-score/AUC: (1) Low traffic volumes–vehicles (100%/99.96%/99.96%), pedestrians (99.96%/99.96%/99.97%), cyclists (99.74%/99.45%/99.67%), and wheelchairs (99.22%/99.68%/99.01%) and (2) Moderate traffic volumes–vehicles (99.39%/99.44%/99.69%), pedestrians (98.33%/97.99%/98.64%), and cyclists (95.41%/94.29%/94.40%), using 32-laser LiDAR sensors (10 Hz).

Keywords

  • classification
  • feature selection
  • roadside LiDAR
  • trajectory

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