Acquired capability for suicide is posited to develop through repeated exposure to physically painful and psychologically provocative events; however, there is limited research evaluating the assessment of painful and provocative events. The current study examined the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the Painful and Provocative Events Scale (PPES). Categorical exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 732). A 15-item PPES with a 3-factor solution best fits the data; however, both the subscales derived from factor analyses yielded inconsistent validity and reliability. Despite addressing limitations of previous psychometric investigations of the PPES, the inconsistent findings of the current study suggest the theoretical reconceptualization of painful and provocative events and the subsequent development of a valid and reliable assessment of painful and provocative events is needed to take the place of current versions of the PPES.
- Painful and Provocative Events Scale
- interpersonal theory of suicide
- suicidal behavior