Background: Many learners are observers and do not directly participate in the care for a simulated patient. Immersive telepresence technology makes it possible to don virtual reality goggles, giving learners their own vantage point, making them feel present in the room. Methods: A multisite quasi-experimental design was used to explore differences in perceived levels of presence and knowledge outcomes among three common roles in simulation and an immersive telepresence role. Results: Learners in immersive telepresence observer roles had significantly higher presence scores than learners who observed via flat screen and projector in an audio-visual room. Immersive telepresence observer roles and active participant roles had similar scores of perceived presence. There were no significant differences in knowledge outcomes among learner roles. Conclusions: Immersive telepresence technology offers an ability to scale simulations for larger groups and demonstrates higher levels of perceived learner engagement and presence than other observer roles.
- knowledge outcomes
- nursing students
- observer roles
- prelicensure nursing education
- virtual reality technology