A multi-objective fuzzy graph approach for modular formulation considering end-of-life issues

Jianzhi Li, Hong Chao Zhang, Miguel A. Gonzalez, Steven Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Increased awareness of the negative environmental impact caused by electronic waste has driven electronics manufacturers to re-engineer their product design process and include product end-of-life considerations into their design criteria. Design for the Environment (DfE), as a possible solution, lacks an implementation framework. To address this problem, a fuzzy graph based modular product design methodology is developed to implement DfE strategies in product modular formulation considering multiple product life cycle objectives guided by DfE. A fuzzy connected graph approach is used to present the product structure, whereby fuzzy relationship values are determined by applying Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to life cycle environmental objectives along with other functional and production concerns. Based on the fuzzy connected graph, an optimal modular formulation is searched using the graph-based clustering algorithm to identify the best module configuration. An example is provided to illustrate the methodology and the algorithm presented in this paper.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4011-4033
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal of Production Research
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 2008


  • Design for the Environment
  • End-of-life
  • Fuzzy graph theory
  • Modular design


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