A meta-analysis of the antecedents and Consequences of pay level satisfaction

Margaret L. Williams, Michael A. McDaniel, Nhung T. Nguyen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

215 Scopus citations


This study reports results from a meta-analysis of 28 correlates of pay level satisfaction involving 240 samples from 203 studies conducted over the past 35 years. Results are presented in 4 categories: primary determinants, antecedents, correlates, and outcomes of pay satisfaction. The authors controlled for pay in examining relations between correlates and pay level satisfaction, as suggested by theory and when primary studies were available to do so. The authors found support for many of the relations suggested by a theoretical model and also note some limitations in the research that has tested this model. The authors recommend changes and additions to the model and suggest additional primary research in specific areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)392-413
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2006


  • Compensation
  • Meta-analysis
  • Pay level
  • Satisfaction


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