A discrete two-stage model which describes the dynamics of a population where juveniles and adults compete for different resources is developed. A motivating example is the green tree frog (Hyla cinerea) where tadpoles and adult frogs feed on separate resources. First, continuous breeding is assumed and the asymptotic behavior of the resulting autonomous model is fully analyzed. It is shown that the unique interior equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the inherent net reproductive number is greater than one. However, when the inherent net reproductive number is less than one, the population becomes extinct. Then a seasonal breeding described by a periodic birth rate with period 2 is assumed. It is proved that for this nonautonomous model a period two solution is globally asymptotically stable when the inherent net reproductive number is greater than one and when the inherent net reproductive number is less than one the population becomes extinct. Finally, the advantage (in terms of maximizing the number of juveniles and adults in the population over a fixed time period) of having a seasonal breeding is studied by comparing the average of the juvenile and adult numbers of the periodic solution for the nonautonomous model to the equilibrium solution of the autonomous model. Our results indicate that for high birth rates the equilibrium of the autonomous model is higher than the average of the two cycle solution. Therefore, all other factors being equal, seasonal breeding appears to be deleterious to populations with high birth rates. However, for low birth rates seasonal breeding can be beneficial. It is also shown that for a range of birth rates the nonautnomous model is persistent while the solution to the autonomous model goes to extinction.
- Discrete two-stage model
- Global stability
- Inherent net reproductive number
- Seasonal versus continuous reproduction