Intermittent wastewater loading, a characteristic of aquaculture operations, undermines the usefulness of treatment wetlands designed using the steady state assumption. Being biological systems, the treatment variability of such wetlands must also be addressed during the design phase. A simulation-optimization model suitable for modeling intermittent pollutant releases and identifying optimal area and wastewater loading patterns for aquaculture operations is integrated with a decision-analytic framework to determine wetland area and release pattern under uncertainty and risk. Wetland area and release patterns corresponding to different decision making priorities were obtained by applying the minimax, maximax, Hurwicz and minimax regret criteria. The developed methodology provides a convenient framework for aquaculture operators and wetland design engineers to consider trade-off between the wetland size (an indicator of construction and opportunity costs) and wastewater loadings (an indicator of operation costs) during the design process. The results can also be used to characterize the risk-attitudes of the aquaculture operators and identify the worth of additional studies (i.e., pilot tests) given their risk-preferences.
- Decision criteria
- Wetland design