2-D modeling to understand the design configuration and flow dynamics of Pond-In-Pond (PIP) wastewater treatment system for reuse

Kushal Adhikari, Clifford B. Fedler, Alireza Asadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Water reuse for irrigation is increasingly recognized as an essential and economical strategy in areas with water scarcity. A simple, low cost, low-maintenance, and highly efficient Pond-In-Pond (PIP) treatment system can be used for wastewater reuse. PIP is a treatment technology in which two types of ponds – anaerobic and aerobic – are combined into a single pond and consists of a deeper inner section entirely submerged within the outer pond. Previous studies on PIPs and PIP-like systems have reinforced the potential for reuse through promising performance results with BOD removal over 80 % and a reduction in land area requirements by approximately 40 %. Yet, no prior efforts have been made to understand the performance mechanism of such systems. This study makes use of two, 2-D modeling tools in developing a fundamental understanding of PIP flow dynamics and the expected performance. The modeling results showed that the PIP configuration offers improved flow-diversion along with reduced flow velocity. Additionally, the PIP retained approximately 17 % more (p < 0.05) particles than the traditional pond with most of the particles concentrated within the inner pond. Lower velocity and the higher solids retention in the PIP thus allowed for better treatment performance compared to traditional ponds. The findings from this study can be used as preliminary data for future in-depth investigations of the PIP system leading toward effective and optimal designs. This will help address the major societal concern of water scarcity with low-cost and effective wastewater treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-214
Number of pages10
JournalProcess Safety and Environmental Protection
Volume153
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Keywords

  • 2-D modeling
  • Irrigation
  • Pond configuration
  • Pond-In-Pond
  • Sustainability
  • Wastewater reuse

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